Funter Bay History: Frozen Foot Johnson

March 13, 2014

One of Funter Bay’s colorful residents was an Alaskan entrepreneur named Edward “Frozen Foot” Johnson, who operated a moonshine still at his cabin from 1917-1922. The nickname originated from a bad case of frostbite in 1911.

johnson

Johnson is mentioned in the book Distant Justice; Policing the Alaskan Frontier, which introduces him as the proprietor of Nome’s Arctic Saloon around 1915. Court records from the time refer to it as the Arctic Billiard Parlor (or Parlors, Hall, or Room), and note that it was essentially a large back room off the Arctic Cigar Store in the Winsor or Windsor Building at 96 Front St. The building was owned by Johnson and the business licenses held by his partner A. C. Laird.  Frank J. Mielke sold the property to Mr. Johnson in June 1915 on an installment plan. Previously it had been known as the “Winsor Bath House” (operated by Fred Berg), and included a pool hall & cigar store known as “Daves Place” (per Kinky Bayers notes and court records). Johnson was also apparently known as “Rube” to some Nome residents, this could have been another nickname or a middle name, perhaps short for Reuben.

While alcohol was legal in Alaska before 1917, gambling was not, and Johnson was frequently in trouble with the authorities for what he called “fun and profit” at the Arctic Saloon. Johnson claimed the gambling law did not apply to him “on account of his being crippled so he could not get out and work”. His gambling activities were well known around Nome, at least one deputy threatened that he “would get him”, and complained about Johnson “ringing buzzers on him” (to warn gamblers that the cops were coming). Eventually a paid informant was used to spy on the card games and set up a bust at the Arctic. After several indictments, fines, failed appeals, and “harrasment” from law enforcement, Johnson declared that it was “Too bad for Nome”, sold the saloon, and moved to Juneau in 1917.

Johnson appeal

With Alaska’s liquor prohibition just beginning, Johnson found a new source of income in moonshine. Distant Justice author William R. Hunt states that Johnson operated a still at Funter Bay from 1917 to 1922, apparently without much trouble from the authorities. He would transport the moonshine by boat to Juneau’s “thirsty residents”. Other sources indicate that Johnson had a number of stills going, including one at Point Howard across Lynn Canal from Funter, and one at his house in Juneau. As mentioned before, remote sites like Funter were prized by bootleggers as a way to avoid notice and “launder” their supplies of grain and sugar through fox farming or other legitimate enterprises.

Johnson may have been under suspicion for some time, as one article notes that he “led prohibition officers on a merry chase around Juneau in the dry years”. A more serious brush with the law came in December of 1920, when his Gastineau Avenue house in Juneau caught fire. In the aftermath, a large still was revealed, and Johnson was arrested (per Kinky Bayers’ notes). The above article states that the still blew up and started the fire.  Another article mentioned that Gastineau Ave (aka “Swede Hill”) was becoming known as “Moonshine Mountain” after another still was found the following week. There seems to be no record of a conviction at this time, but the authorities kept a closer eye on Johnson over the next year.

In January of 1922, John B. Marshall, the Prohibition Director for Alaska, sent two agents to Funter Bay to investigate Johnson’s activities there. Agents J.W. Kirkland and W.C. Mayburn (Or McMayburn) found a two-story cabin at Funter Bay, equipped with a still and stocks of mash, sugar, and other moonshine ingredients.  Upon returning to Juneau with their report, the two agents were issued a warrant and sent back to Funter to bring in Frozen Foot. An article on January 23rd said that Johnson’s trial was set for the 25th.

The story takes another twist here. In fact there were apparently several stories told by the two federal agents to their superiors, none of which exactly matched. As the authorities put the pieces together, it emerged that Johnson was apprehended at Funter Bay, but bribed his way out of custody on the way to Juneau and vanished (Bribes of poorly-trained and underpaid prohibition agents were fairly common). A second expedition to Funter with different agents took revenge upon Johnson by seizing his still and burning his cabin to the ground. A grand jury later censured Director Marshall for “the unnecessary burning of the cabin”.

Unable to get his hands on Frozen Foot Johnson, Marshall turned on his agents with charges of perjury. James Wickersham, well known former judge and friend of John Marshall, was retained as special prosecutor for the government in July of 1922 (noted in his diary). The legal process dragged on through the summer. In September, Wickersham writes that “W.C. McMayburn… charged with perjury in connection with J.W. Kirkland & other crookedness with ‘Frozenfoot’ Johnson volunteered to tell the whole truth”. Mayburn/McMayburn struck a deal for immunity in return for testifying against Kirkland. Despite this, at Kirkland’s trial in October the jury failed to reach a verdict (Wickersham complained that there were “two or three bootlegging scamps on the jury”, and noted that the case looked “useless till ‘Frozenfoot’ Johnson is arrested and convicted” ). A second trial in November reached a “not guilty” verdict for Kirkland, as the jury decided that Mayburn’s testimony was unreliable. Prosecutor Wickersham wrote to US Attorney Shoup asking him to re-arrest Kirkland for perjury during the trials, but Shoup declined. As Mayburn had immunity, this left both former agents off the hook.

In the meantime Frozen Foot Johnson, the source of the scandal, managed to flee the state as law enforcement bickered over what to do with him. Albert Shoup claimed that Director John Marshall held up the warrant for Johnson to protect Mayburn’s testimony, but Marshall denied it and claimed it was Shoup who refused to arrest Johnson. Wickersham noted that even before Mayburn’s immunity deal, there was “trouble” between US Attorney Shoup & Prohibition Director Marshall, and that Wickersham had the role of middleman or peacemaker. After the case, the governor and other politicians questioned Shoup’s actions.

“Throughout hearings granted to Judge Thomas M. Reed and District Attorney Albert G Shoup, whose re-nominations in the first Alaskan judicial district were under fire, there were spread on the record frequent references to bootlegging, narcotic traffic, and other forms of vice; purported miscarriages of justice and ‘sour-dough’ nicknames such as frozen foot. … Delegate Sutherland charged Shoup had failed diligently to prosecute several liquor cases which had resulted in the failure to convict ‘Frozen Foot’ Johnson, whom he described as ‘the biggest bootlegger in Alaska.'”
From The Associated Press, “Conditions in Alaska”, The Anaconda Standard (Montana), 18 March 1926

Johnson seems to have escaped justice and eventually returned to the state, he was mentioned living in Sitka and having some “business” of undisclosed legitimacy in Petersburg with Ernie Carter (who later opened Ernie’s Bar in Sitka).

I’ve not been able to find much more detail on Frozen Foot Johnson, such as his origin or final fate. One newspaper claims that “Frozen Foot Johnson” died at the Sitka Pioneer’s Home in 1938 (meaning this could be his grave site), but other articles mention Frozen-Foot Johnson in Sitka in the 1940s. Several Ed Johnsons were at the Sitka Pioneer’s home around that time, so there could have been some confusion among reporters. Another Edward Johnson from Sitka was born in 1880, an Ed Johnson born about 1880 in Sweden was in Juneau in 1920, and an Ed Johnson born about 1881 in Sweden was in Nome in 1910 (per US census records).

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Funter Bay History: Moonshine

July 8, 2013

Moonshine is another tradition of Alaska life which had an impact on Funter Bay. In fact, moonshining in the area had an impact on the English language! The word “Hooch”, a popular term for homemade alcohol, originated on Admiralty Island:

hoochinoo   hoo·chi·noo, noun, plural hoo·chi·noos.
A type of distilled liquor made by Alaskan Indians.
1875–80,  Americanism; orig. the name of a Tlingit village on Admiralty Island, Alaska, reputed to be a source of illicit liquor; alteration of Tlingit xucnu·wú  literally, brown bear’s fort ( xú·c  brown bear + nu·w  fortified place)

From http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/hoochinoo

The word is commonly spelled “Kootsnoowoo” today, meaning “fortress of the bears”, the Tlingit name for Admiralty Island. The village is now called Angoon.

More information here, from the Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories.  Also here, and in this articleThis site also has some good information on Alaskan alcohol history. I found it interesting that kelp was sometimes distilled into moonshine, and that native distillers often supplied booze to white settlers, not necessarily vise-versa!

During prohibition (which started early in 1917 in Alaska), fox farms were a popular front for moonshining operations. The premise of a fox farm gave operators a reason to live on a remote homestead and have a large amount of grain on hand (fox diets were supplemented with corn or other grains). Bootleggers would drop off a crew on an island along with a still and supplies, and come back occasionally to pick up the product. Alcohol was also brought in on vessels from Canada, and was sometimes dropped off in secluded coves where bootleggers could collect it without fear of discovery. Here is a tale of a bootlegger’s attempt to scam a cannery over the loss of their smuggling boat. In another case, some bootleggers apparently decided to lower their up-front costs and switch to piracy; an article from January 1922 mentions that the vessel Clara (a 46′ fishing boat from Juneau) robbed the Canadian boat Vesta of her cargo of whiskey in Whale Passage.

Below is a diagram of a still (appearing to be made from surplus plumbing parts), from the Investigative Case Files of Prohibition Violations, 1924-1933, NARA Alaska-Pacific Region:
Portrait

Here’s a photo of a moonshine still in he woods from Alaska’s state library collections. Lazzette Ohman reports finding several stills in the woods around her family’s home in Juneau in the 1920s.

Bootlegging was apparently as hard to prosecute as fish piracy, the bootleggers were often seen as local heroes and Alaska residents delighted in confounding “the law”.  One story relates a speakeasy in Wrangell whose owner was let off by a hung jury despite apparently damning evidence. Another great story from the biography of area geologist John Mertie (who has a geologic deposit named after him at Funter Bay) showed what happened when unwilling citizens were roped into Jury Duty:

“I was waylaid by the town marshall and asked to serve on the jury…I had no interest in sitting on the jury but the marshall prevailed upon me… This was during the days of prohibition and involved a young man who had been arrested for making home brew beer… As the jurors left the court room to deliberate, a couple of them managed to appropriate the beer. We twelve sat around the jury room drinking the evidence. When it was gone we rendered a verdict of “not guilty”. The young man was elated and thanked the jurors individually. We in turn complimented him on his fine beer.”
Excerpt from “Thirty Summers and a Winter” by Evelyn Mertie.

To catch the smugglers, “Dry Units” and customs officials relied on fast patrol boats, some of them captured from bootleggers. A 1929 article notes that the 30-knot speedboat Three Deuces (AKA the 222), formerly belonging to notorious Puget Sound smuggler Roy Olmstead, had been brought to Alaska “to chase rum-runners”.

US Marshals destroy liquor in Alaska during WWI:
prohibition

As mentioned in an earlier post, a boat named Sandy from Funter Bay had a cargo of moonshine when it caught fire in Auke Bay on August 9th, 1928. The Sandy‘s crew were apprehended by customs and prohibition officers. They were not named, but owner L.F. Morris (a Juneau building contractor) was sentenced to jail on August 30th for bootlegging. Previously, in 1926, Morris’ nephew L.H. Cays was reported missing in a small open boat after leaving Horse Island (across the Bear Creek Trail from Funter Bay). This information is listed in Kinky Bayers’ bootlegging file, so it is likely that Cays was coming from a still on Horse Island.

The Bayers notes also mention that Neil Gallagher (of the Point Couverden fox farm, which got its mail in Funter Bay) was arrested in 1925 for bootlegging conspiracy, and again in 1928 for “rum running”. The later case got him 6 months in jail. The end of prohibition apparently did not end the family side business; Don Gallagher and Phil Cummings were “arrested and evicted” from Excursion Inlet for bootlegging liquor in June of 1943. This was well after Prohibition, but could have been due to military regulations (Excursion Inlet was a US army base and POW camp during WWII). Don Gallagher is also mentioned in an interview in T.B. Bott’s book The Greybeards; Gallagher operated the mail boat Forrester and supposedly ran into trouble for supplying alcohol to dry towns like Hoonah after WWII.

The troller Ada May with Scotty Boyce and his wife, and Ed Hibler, was apprehended after a long chase off Point Retreat in June 1930, with a quantity of bootleg whiskey on board. The Ada May was listed as visiting Funter Bay in another publication.

One moonshining operation was just south of Funter Bay. After prohibition ended, Funter resident Gunner Ohman appropriated the abandoned cabin for use as a summer fish camp. Local information says that during the moonshining days, some brown bears got into the product and went on a drunken rampage. Eventually the forest service had to come out and shoot them (They must have kept returning or started visiting other cabins looking for booze). This was not the only time drunk bears have been a problem at Funter, in the mid 90s some juvenile bears learned to associate cabins with food, and were known for opening coolers and biting beer cans. Supposedly they preferred Miller over Budweiser.

One still at Funter Bay was reportedly run by Ed “Frozen Foot” Johnson, formerly of the Arctic Saloon in Nome. He operated a still at Funter from 1917 to 1922 when he was caught. He managed to bribe the arresting agents and escape. Other agents then burned down his cabin. Kinky Bayers reported that Johnson also operated a still at Point Howard, across Lynn Canal from Funter Bay.

The end of Prohibition in 1933 is noted by Sarah Isto as a blow to fox farm profits, which were already suffering from the effects of the depression. Personal-use brewing, distilling, and smuggling continued on a smaller scale in some places, and is still around today. You can even buy a how-to book on Alaskan moonshining.

My Dad relates this about a former resident of Funter Bay who returned to visit in the 1970s:

“… he was looking for his mother’s still. … This guy reached under the porch step and pulled out a mason jar of moonshine, said it was where his mother hid it, we all had a sip. “

Bootlegging is still an issue in Alaska today, as many rural communities are “dry” or have banned alcohol. The profits from smuggling can be huge, but so can the penalties. While I was attending UAF in Fairbanks, one of our economics professors helpfully provided a case study in the economy of smuggling! Dr. Robert Logan was arrested in 2003 for flying drugs and alcohol to rural villages, and had his plane confiscated. Curious as to Prof. Logan’s current whereabouts, I came across this page. If that’s the same Bob Logan, he may have dipped into the products a little too heavily!


Funter Bay History: Trapping & Fur Farming

June 7, 2013

Fur-bearing animals have long been an important part of the Alaskan economy, and an iconic part of Alaska history. The image of the lone trapper in the wilderness is often a symbol of Alaskan life. Fur farmers institutionalized the production of furs, and helped prevent extinction from overtrapping. Alaska fur farming began with Russian settlement, and furs were assumed to be the most valuable resource in Alaska when it was purchased by the US. Fur sales met with varying amounts of success depending on the economy and styles of different periods, but boomed during the 1920s. The Alaska State Library has a collection of photos related to fox farming. Both fur farming and trapping coexisted and are still around today, although there are no active fur farms in Alaska at present.

fur coat

Sarah Crawford Isto has a great history of Alaska Fur Farming; “The Fur Farms of Alaska: Two Centuries of History and a Forgotten Stampede“. Her book goes into much more detail and has much more history than I can cover here. Sarah was quite helpful in straightening out some of my information.

Another good source is Larry Roberts’ Southeast Alaska Fur Farm Database. Larry was also a great help in answering questions and providing extra information.

Many trappers probably worked in the Funter Bay area at various times. They would have mainly been seeking various Mustelids, including mink, marten, and weasels/ermine. Foxes are not native to Admiralty Island. River otter could also be trapped, and sea otter were hunted from boats (sea otter harvest was made illegal in 1911, but today there is a subsistence exemption for Natives). While I have not found much specific information on local trappers, the Bayers notecards mentions an S.P. “Bud” May, a  Funter Bay trapper who went missing in 1937. Tlingit natives from Hoonah are noted as trapping mink and marten at Funter Bay, although at least one source speculates that marten could have been introduced to the island by fur farmers.

As a side note on animal behavior: the small mustelids are quite bold, and will sometimes come into houses or approach humans out of curiosity. By contrast, otters seem to have learned to fear kayaks (the traditional hunting boat), but will ignore larger power boats. River otters and mink like to use skiffs and docks as dining areas and/or bathrooms, and are often the source of smelly things found in your boat in the morning. River otters will also sometimes try to drown dogs, they attempt to call or tease the dog into the water where they can get on its head.

A curious weasel (partly in its winter ermine coat) examines someone’s foot at Funter:
Weasel 2

A marten visiting the bird feeder at Funter:marten

Large fox farms often involved leaving breeding pairs on an island, where the ocean served as a natural fence while the stock increased. Caretakers would sometimes live on the island to ensure the foxes stayed fed, healthy, and undisturbed by poachers. Pens and fenced enclosures were used with mink, which were more adept at swimming. Smaller backyard fox farms had pens if they were on a larger island or the mainland, and pens became more common in later years once researchers learned of parasite issues with free-range stock. Isloated island farms often let the foxes find their own food on the beach or in bird nests, but most farmers supplemented the diet with fish, wild game, and cereals. Farmers would sometimes buy fish byproducts such as heads and guts from local canneries (and some would reportedly rob fish traps for fox food). Fish could be salted or smoked to keep over the winter. Sarah Isto’s book mentions salted fish heads being used as fox feed, but also mentions that foxes preferred “freshened” fish with the salt rinsed out. Various experiments to introduce rodents onto islands usually met with failure as early as Russian farming days, but this didn’t stop farmers and the government from trying.

fox

Several possible fur farms have been identified around Funter Bay, although official documentation is scarce. Fox farms would likely have used blue foxes, as silver foxes were harder to raise. Some farmers had only a few breeding pairs and harvested only a few pelts each year. Backyard fur farming was often a side project for people who worked other seasonal jobs such as fishing, mining, or cannery labor in the summer.

The farms at Funter may or may not have been entirely legal. Small-time operators sometimes squatted without sanctioned land rights, and neglected to get a government permit. Other “farmers” live-trapped animals in the summer (or poached them from legitimate farms) and penned them until winter when their coats were thickest. Still others used fur farms as a front for the other big moneymaker of the 1920s: moonshining (more on this later).

One potential farm is at the cannery, with pens located behind the workers’ houses. I have sometimes heard this referred to as a fox farm. The other, referred to as a mink farm, was located behind Harvey Smith’s property in Crab Cove. That site has some fencing and a trash midden at the site of a former cabin.

foxy

A fur farm belonging to a Pat Kelly is listed at Funter in the SE Alaska fur farm database. His farm, record JUN-30, is shown near the cannery and listed as keeping mink and marten in pens around 1924. The Kinky Bayers notes list a Capt. Pat Kelly of the vessel A.R.B. 10 operating around Juneau in 1958. Bayers also lists a Pat Kelly serving as mate aboard the steamship Glymont of the Nelson Line in 1933. A Pat Kelly from Wrangell was arrested at Prince Rupert, BC in May of 1934 for stealing furs and the gas boat T-1957 from Stanley Jekell. Stanley had his own run-ins with the law, being charged with poaching deer in 1935.

I am not sure if these are all the same Pat Kelly, but there are common threads between them. Capt. A. J. “Pat” Kelly appears to have been a fish buyer for the A.R. Brueger Packing Co of Wrangell in the 1950s. The A.R.B 10 is in the merchant vessel registry as a 62′ wood fishing boat, owned by A.J. Kelly of Wrangell. It was formerly the No. 3145, built for the US Navy in Philadelphia in 1923. It sank in 1959 at Lituya Bay. This book mentions that Pat and Elsie Kelly were fish buyers.

Neil (or Neal) C. Gallagher had a fox farm at Point Couverden across Lynn Canal, and received mail at Funter Bay. He is listed as raising blue fox in pens prior to 1924. His wife was reportedly Mary Joyce. (Larry Roberts compiled most of the Gallagher information, and notes that the details are confusing. I’ve used the Bayers notes to fill in some more). Neil’s brothers Con (or Don) and Phillip R Gallagher were also involved with this fur farm, as was a person named Pat Mulvaney. Con Gallagher Sr, father of “Neal, Phil, and Con Jr”, is reported as building the first pile-driven fish trap in Southeast Alaska for the Alaska Packer’s Association of Excursion Inlet in 1900. “Neal Gallagher” was in trouble with the law for rum-running in 1925 and again in 1928, and a Don Gallagher was evicted from Excursion Inlet for bootlegging during WWII.

Some of the Gallaghers’ fox farming partners were Michael and Lylia Whalen. After Neil’s death, Mary reportedly sold her 1/6 share to Lylia for $1, and the Whalens sold the Point Couverden farm to August Goodman in 1928. Goodman abandoned it in 1934. Their farm, JUN-17, was noted as using several islands, probably on the East side of Couverden, South of Howard Bay.  Elizabeth Goodman (1919-1999) was the daughter of August and Isobel Goodman.

Several Funter Bay residents had formerly been involved in fur farming. Lazzette Ohman grew up on a fox farm near Petersburg in the 1920s, and her stepfather owned a small fox farm in Juneau later that decade. Harold F. Hargrave, the caretaker of the Funter Bay cannery in the 1940s and onward, is listed as owning fur farm JUN-24 on Douglas Island between 1937-1940.

Today there is not much left of the fur farms at Funter Bay, aside from some wire fencing, cabin ruins, and a few artifacts.

Chicken wire fencing stapled around trees at the Crab Cove fur farm:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Fencing behind the cannery in an area reported to be a fox farm:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

A wheelbarrow at the former cannery fur farm, possibly used to haul fish to feed the animals:
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Another fence near the cannery, this one with actual cut fence post, angle braces, and sections going underground to prevent critters from digging under (I realize these aren’t the most exciting photos, chickenwire on trees doesn’t provide much contrast!):
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Today, mink, marten, and weasels are all common around Funter Bay. As noted, some populations may have been introduced or escaped from farms. While foxes escaped from farms periodically, they were unable to survive on only a foraging diet. Blue and silver foxes are not indigenous to Southeast, and farmers had to provide significant dietary supplements to keep their stock healthy.

Another introduced species, red squirrels, seem to have been transplanted to Admiralty Island in an effort to aid fur farming, and have become an invasive nuisance animal. State and Federal wildlife agencies occasionally transplanted animals, including squirrels, marten, and others.  Local information indicates that the US Forest Service introduced red squirrels onto Admiralty Island in the 1930s as a cheap food source for foxes (I am not sure why they thought this was a good idea, squirrels are better climbers and would easily evade free-range foxes, and a farmer would have to shoot or trap a large number of squirrels to feed their stock). One source claims red squirrels arrived on Admiralty in the 1970s. Another claims they appeared in the late 1940s. This paper quotes the USDA Forest Service as saying red squirrels were released on Admiralty in the 1930s, and claims they are “not invasive”. Red squirrels were also released on Prince of Wales Island, but seem to have been out-competed by indigenous flying squirrels. While locals have long recognized red squirrels (aka wood rats or tree rats) as a non-native nuisance animal, official studies have finally begun to classify them as an invasive species. Squirrels are a major predator of local birds (mostly the eggs) and an annoyance to human residents (they steal insulation and chew wiring).  The Forest Service and ADF&G seem to claim no direct knowledge of their mysterious appearance on Admiralty Island.

Larry Roberts of the Alaskan Fur Farm Database was very helpful in compiling this information, both by email and with copies of his research materials. He is interested in sharing fur farming information with other researchers and the public. His contact information is below:
Larry D. Roberts
P.O. Box 4381
Grand Junction, CO 81502
970-640-7418

rockingrroberts@netscape.net

Sarah Isto was also very helpful with additional information on this topic.

References used for this writeup include:

Roberts, Larry D. Preliminary Select Bibliography in Relation to Historic Alaska Fur Farming. 1 May 2013. Grand Junction, CO.

Roberts, Larry D. “Search Database.” Historic Southeast Alaska Fur Farming. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013. <http://rockingr.com/home/search-alaskan-fur-farm-database/&gt;.

Roberts, Larry D. Place Names. N.d. A Preliminary Biographical Index to Historic Southeast Alaska Fur Farming; Second Edition. Grand Junction, CO.

Roberts, Larry D. Companies and Individuals. Mar. 2013. A Preliminary Biographical Index to Historic Southeast Alaska Fur Farming; Second Edition. Grand Junction, CO.

Isto, Sarah Crawford. The Fur Farms of Alaska: Two Centuries of History and a Forgotten Stampede. Fairbanks: University of Alaska, 2012. Print.

Ohman, Lazzette. Reflections: A Pioneer Alaskan’s Personal History from the Gold Rush of ’89 to 1980. N.p.: Vantage, 1988. Print.

“Fur Farming.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 07 Sept. 2013. Web. 1 Jun 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fur_farming&gt;.

Goldshmidt, Walter Rochs, and Theodore H. Haas. Haa Aani, Our Land: Tlingit and Haida Land Rights and Use. N.p.: University of Washington, 1946.

Bayers, Lloyd H. Captain Lloyd H. “Kinky” Bayers Collection, 1898-1967. N.d. Archival Collection MS 10. Alaska State Library Historical Collections, Juneau, AK.

The Black Fox Magazine & Modern Mink Breeder Vol 6 (1922).
American Fox and Fur Farmer (1922).
American Fox and Fur Farmer Vol 1 (1921).
“Obituaries from End of the Trail.” Obituary for A. R. Brueger. Alaska Magazine, June 1963. Web.  <http://www.alaskaobits.org/obituaries/view.cfm/A-R-Brueger/id/225&gt;.
Good, Warren. “South East Alaska Shipwrecks ” Alaska Shipwrecks. Web.  <http://alaskashipwreck.com/&gt;.
George, Marilyn Jordan. Following the Alaskan Dream. [Petersburg, Alaska]: M.J. George, 1999.
“Obituaries.” Charlie George Sharclane. Juneau Empire, 9 Jan. 2000. Web. <http://juneauempire.com/stories/010900/Com_sharobit.html&gt;.

Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Division of Wildlife Conservation. Game Transplants in Alaska; Technical Bulletin #4. By Thomas W. Paul. 2nd ed. Juneau: n.p., 2009. Print.

United States Forest Service. Alaska Region. Assessment of Invasive Species in Alaska and Its National Forests. By Barbara Schrader and Paul Hennon. N.p.: n.p., 2005. Web. <http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5269749.pdf&gt;.

MacDonald, Stephen O., and Joseph A. Cook. “The Land Mammal Fauna of Southeast Alaska.” The Canadian Field-Naturalist 110.4 (1996): 571-98. Web.

Aubry, Keith Baker., William J. . Zielinski, Martin George. Raphael, Gilbert Proulx, and Steven William. Buskirk. Biology and Conservation of Martens, Sables, and Fishers a New Synthesis. Ithaca [N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Associates/Cornell UP, 2012.